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General characteristics of treatments that maintain the technical and operational efficiency of the properties

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This article presents types and characteristic of the routine processes, actions and conservation treatments relating to the usual property use, also documentation and procedures of the use, planning and realization of current repairs and overhauls. Modernizations, reconstructions, rebuilding issues are also described by the author.

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One of the elements of proper real estate management is to maintain it in the non-deteriorated condition, in accordance with its designated use. The maintenance of the building or the edifice in the proper condition consists, above all, in keeping technical efficiency of particular elements, providing them, as well as adjusting to the way of use of a given real estate.

According to British Standards Institute, Glossary of Management Terms of Technology (HMSO, London 1984) real estate maintenance is defined as “consolidation of all the technical actions or related administrative actions with the aim to maintaining the object or renewing its condition so as it can perform required functions.

The conducted works shall not only ensure further building use but also enable the use in a different, desirable way. The proper realization of this process calls for the proper preparations. First of all, one must indicate and separate elements requiring “intervention”, that is actions improving technical efficiency of a given real estate. Having specified what and in which way was damaged, one shall determine the costs incurred while damage is being repairs, so as to be able to get down to repairs, after optimization of the financial expenditures.

One shall remember that civil structure is a complicated construction, in which various functions are executed. The separation and repair of one element must make allowance for its situating within the whole system of operation of the real estate These elements cause that technical maintenance of the real estate, amounts of work and costs in the following periods are different for particular structures.

The requirement of keeping the real estate in non-deteriorated condition, ensuring, at the same time, the possibility of execution of its functions, that is, in accordance with its designated use, as well as adjusting it to requirements of the environmental protection, is met on conducting of the building conservations, as well as current repairs and renovations. One of the elements constituting these actions is the technical service of all the amenities, systems and devices installed in the real estate.

The regulations of the Building Law impose on the real estate owners and managers many specified duties, relating to periodic inspections and controls of specified parts of the building.

civil structure, in the course of use shall be object to periodic control, the time of duration of which shall depend on the role of a particular element within the building.

The elements of the structure and amenities, being in danger of detrimental atmospheric effects and devastating actions of factors occurring in the course of use, shall be subjects to annual control. The amenities and devices that influence on the environmental protection (e.g. all types of filters), shall also be subject to annual control (gas systems and chimney conductors of all kinds (ventilation, smoke, emission).

The other parts of the building, such as elevations or electrical and lightning conductor systems, are subject to periodic control that shall be carried out every 5 years. The technical efficiency, safety of use and protection from electric shocks or conductor resistance shall be tested in the course of such controls. It is recommended that periodic controls be conducted during Spring time by persons with building authorizations, whereas the control of technical condition of electrical, lightning conductor or gas systems be carried out by persons with qualifications required for control over use of these devices.

The reports shall be made as a result of the conducted controls. While getting down to the following control the inspector conducting periodic control shall, before its beginning,  become familiar with  reports resulting from previous  controls and check whether the post-control settlements have been implemented.

The report shall include:

• specification of technical condition of building elements;

• extent of consumption or damage of  building elements;

• range of recommended repair work;

• order of repair to be carried out ;

• methods and means of use  of elements of the building (in particular of those in danger of detrimental actions resulting from atmospheric effects);

• list of repair works recommended to be carried out in previous reports, yet t hat has  not  been implemented.

If necessary, graphic documentation can be attached to the report.  In the course of the control, technical condition of the following elements shall be subject to particular attention:

• external surfaces of external dams – surface;

• external walls including pillars, attics, cornices, balustrades and balconies;

• elements and devices  attached to walls and roofs of the building;

• dehydration of the building (gutters and down pipes) as well as flashings (roof works);

• roofing’s; • central heating system and hot water system;

• fire protection of the building;

• sewerage system with elements  carrying  sewage off the building;

• transition of  terminal systems through the building walls.

In the course of control special attention shall be paid to the condition of technical efficiency and operating value of the examined elements of the building. The control shall also refer to overall aesthetics of the structure and its surroundings.

The real estate owner or manager are obliged to store all the documents relating to the civil structure (projects, technical documentation regarding construction work), as well as all the reports during the period of existence of the structure. The owner or the manager is obliged to make the documents available to authorities any time,  so that they can carry out   control of civil structures.

The property owner or  managers are obliged to run for every building… (…) civil structure’s record book, which is a document, destined for appointments relating to examinations carried out and controls over technical condition, repairs and rebuilding in the course of the use of the civil structure   Exempted from this duty are the owners and managers of:

• detached houses;

• summer cottages;

• industrial buildings relating to agriculture.

All other documents relating to use and use of the building shall be attached to the record book of the civil structure. These are, above all, all types of service and exploitation manuals of the devices installed in the real estate. It is a good custom to attach “house regulations” as a document regulating the use of the real estate by its inhabitants.

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The current management of the real estate, known as operating management, is, besides financial management (taxes, rents, rent policy) and space management, technique management, as well as conservation management and technical maintenance of space.

Operating management is based on annual material plan, which takes into consideration required repair work, as well as expenditures securing execution of these actions. Usually the document completing such material plan is a schedule of task execution, which is in-time setting of actions.   The planning of actions can be made in form of economic and financial plans. Such plans are prepared by the property manager and accepted (approved) by the owner. The plans indicate repair requirements, conservation works, financial scale, material extent, time of duration, etc. The conservation works are based on maintenance of all elements of the building in current technical efficiency. After a while such works are not sufficient to prevent from consumption and it is required to carry out an overhaul.

The basic aim of building repairs is to maintain security of the real estate and ensure stable use of the building, in accordance with its destination. The repairs in building engineering are divided, with regard to the extent of carried out works, into:

• Current repairs;

• Emergency repairs;

• Overhauls.

The current repairs consist in carrying out conservation and preventive works of the building and their necessity results from both periodic controls and current monitoring of the technical condition of the building. The repairs carried out while current repairs include above all elimination of the prospective damages of elements of the building and devices installed in the structure.

The property manager shall be up-to-date with inspections over substance entrusted to them, to the information on these inspections data from periodic controls are enclosed and, on the basis on that, a plan of repair works shall be prepared. The most important works to be carried out are relating to:

• securing safety of the users of premises and third parties;

• fire protection of the building;

• complying with  requirements of the environmental protection;

• Preventive actions.

As all the actions undertaken by the property manager shall take into consideration the safety of the persons making use of the property, special attention shall be paid to the current use and control all of the amenities which the real estate is equipped with.

The ventilation system and necessary devices enable air exchange in the premises. There are two types of ventilation system: gravitational and mechanical. In both cases current repairs consist of ensuring tightness of ventilation lines, and in the case of mechanical system, providing technical efficiency of ventilators.

The combustion ducts and flues ensure disposal of combustion gases and smoke. In this case, tightness is examined as well, however, repairs of the building can be carried out only by persons with suitable authorizations, that is, in accordance with the Building Law, by persons with foreman qualifications in chimney craft or with suitable building qualifications.

The hot water system ensures supply of water with given temperature to the dredging points. The tightness of the system is examined and, in the case of system being equipped with water meters, they also shall be subject to periodic control.   The water supply system shall be subject to similar requirements.

The sewerage system enables sewage disposal. While exploiting sewerage system, special attention shall be paid to protecting  the system from introducing sewage  that can damage the system, as far as damages are concerned, they may be both mechanical and chemical. The quality of sewage being drained is specified in detailed regulations. The tightness of the system is subject to control.

The gas system is one of the most important parts of the security of use of the building.  Due to huge threat that can arise with the damage or failure of the system, controls of the system and devices relating to the gas system shall be conducted in accordance with recommendations stipulated in the regulations. Besides the requirement of periodic controls, in the case of system reconstruction, repair or excluding from use for more than 6 months, major test of tightness shall be carried out before the system is put into use again. Such  a test shall be carried out in a strictly specified way, Major test of tightness shall be carried out separately for part of the system with gas meters and for the remaining system omitting gas meters” and “on the system without corrosion protection, after its cleanness, blanking off endings, opening taps and gas disconnecting.

The systems, which are also subject to control and conservation actions, are electric systems and devices, as well as lightning conductor systems.  As far as electric systems are concerned, special attention shall be paid to security of their use, ensuring technical efficiency, appropriate operation of connections, fittings, protection from electric shocks and eventually earthling and resistance of the insulation of lines.

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An overhaul is an action consisting in exchange and repair of all used, destroyed or damaged elements of building and devices. They are carried out with the aim of restoring of the primary value to the structure.

The scientific research made it possible to specify and estimate life period for particular components of the building, so some of them amount for:

walls of prefabricated stratified or Ferro concrete units circa100 years Klein’s ceilings
Klein’s ceilings 100 – 130 years
Ferro concrete staircases 120 – 150 years
oak stave floor 50 – 80 years
facade plaster works, simple, cement- calcareous 30 – 40 years
roofs of wooden construction 50 – 75 years
roofs of steel construction 100 – 150 years
roofing of black pate 20 – 30 years
roofing paper 10 – 20 years
roofing-tile 20 – 60 years
water supply, water sewerage and gas  pipes 25 – 50 years
central heating pipes 20 – 45 year
electrical system pipes 30 – 40 years

with the course of time, each gets used up, what results in decrease in the use value and  value  of the structure

Table 1. Phases of technical condition for particular elements of the building.

Element consumption process 

Elements of building Satisfactory condition Unsatisfactory condition Bad condition Totally bad condition
Gas system 0 – 10 11 – 15 16 – 20 ≥ 21
Electric systems 0 – 10 11 – 15 16 – 20 ≥ 21
Water supply systems, water sewerage systems, central heating systems 0 – 10 11 – 20 21 – 30 ≥ 31
Structural component 0 – 20 21 – 35 36 – 50 ≥ 51
Finishing components 0 – 25 26 – 40 41 – 60 ≥ 71

While carrying out conservation works, current repairs and overhauls specified costs are generated. The structure of costs of building repairs changes in the course of time of its use. In this way, while constructing the civil structure, building works amount to 60% of costs incurred, while costs of installing and finishing works- 40%. After 60 years of use of the structure this proportion gets reversed and costs incurred during installing and finishing repairs are significantly higher.

The time required for carrying out repair depends mainly on materials used. In this case, the ruling principle is that the better quality of the material used for construction of the particular building element, the lower and more efficient the costs incurred in conservation are, although the initial costs are higher.

While discussing the issue of overhauls, one cannot omit issues regarding maintenance of basic structural components, like steel and Ferro concrete components. In the constructions one can indicate so called “weak points”, as follows:

• connections junctions;

• connectors;

• bearings;

• articulations;

• dilatation devices.

As a result of the effect of atmosphere, vibrations and other influences, they can be subject to corrosion, fractures or slackening of connections what may threaten security of the use of   the building.

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During the use of the building occurs its moral consumption and of its elements, that is intangible value of the structure decreases because of the increase of the users’ requirements. As well as different  possibilities of implementation of the technical solutions that enable meeting of the increasing demands of people, by means of the latest technical solutions.

The works relating to modernization, improvement or keeping the structures upto-date are modernizing actions. They include also rising of the aesthetic considerations, enriching architecture of the building that, designed according to the obligatory patterns after some time, may not comply with the latest trends or tastes. Such treatments often raise prestige of the building users or owners.

An example that illustrates the necessity of carrying out modernization is the condition of housing resources in some countries. Many flats still lack of water supply systems or sewerage systems. To raise the standard of these flats one shall equip them with technical systems and devices such as: water pipelines, bathrooms, toilets, central heating, etc .Such works are often related to the necessity of rebuilding of the flat operating system (e.g. the necessity to arrange space for bathroom or a toilet).

Table 2.  Flats in some countries with no amenities (% of all flats):

Amenities In towns In the country
Water supply system 1,5 11,8
Toilets 5,7 26,5
Bathrooms 8,0 24,1
Gas system 26,0 82,4
Central heating 15,9 36,5

Modernization (rebuilding) may be related to the change in a way of use of premises, structure or real estate. The change in the way of the use of the building or its part is particularly deemed to mean:

• modification of premises or room with housing destination or destination for public usage, that used to have different destination or were  constructed with a different purpose, including the destination of the habitats for non housing purposes;

• undertaking or abandoning, in the building or its part, activity that changes conditions of: fire protection, flood security, work security, work, health, hygienic and sanitary, environmental protection, growth or load system.”

In some countries all kinds of changes in the way of use of the civil structure or its part, shall be subject to the statement submitted to authorities. That is why the following documents shall be attached to the statement:

• description and drawing defining the location of the building in relation to the borders of the real estate with other civil structure situated on the same or neighbour real estate;

• designation of the building in which the way of designated use  shall be altered;

• technical description of the building type and character of the structure, including its construction, technical and functional data,  size and load distribution, and, if necessary, technical data;

• statement of possession of right to dispose of  real estate for building purposes;

• statement issued by commune head, mayor, president of the town on conformity of the way of use  of the structure with settlements of in force  local development  plan  or, in case of lack of such a plan, final decision on the conditions of terrain development  and site planning;

• in case of alteration of designated use  that leads to lowering conditions of fire protection, flood security, work security, work, health, hygienic and sanitary, environmental protection, size or load system – technical expertise carried out by persons with building qualifications in the appropriate specialization.   The statement shall be submitted before change in the way of use.

Tagged: Istanbul propertybuying property in Istanbulcentral IstanbulIstanbul apartmentsIstanbul buildingsIstanbul investmentIstanbul propertyIstanbul property sale, Istanbul real estateIstanbul renovationsProperty in Istanbul.

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